Unterschiede optionen und futures
Numeric handling has been improved in many ways, for both floating-point numbers and for the Decimal class. There are some useful additions to the standard library, such as a greatly enhanced unittest module, the argparse module for parsing command-line options, convenient OrderedDict and Counter classes in the collections module, and many other improvements. To help with porting to Python 3, several new features from the Python 3. For full details, you should refer to the documentation for Python 2.
If you want to understand the rationale for the design and implementation, refer to the PEP for a particular new feature or the issue on https: This means that while Python 2 continues to receive bug fixes, and to be updated to build correctly on new hardware and versions of supported operated systems, there will be no new full feature releases for the language or standard library.
However, while there is a large common subset between Python 2. This means that Python 2. The full expected lifecycle of the Python 2. For projects wishing to migrate from Python 2 to Python 3, or for library and framework developers wishing to support users on both Python 2 and Python 3, there are a variety of tools and guides available to help decide on a suitable approach and manage some of the technical details involved.
DeprecationWarning and its descendants are now ignored unless otherwise requested, preventing users from seeing warnings triggered by an application.
This change was also made in the branch that became Python 3. Discussed on stdlib-sig and carried unterschiede optionen und futures in bpo In previous releases, DeprecationWarning messages were enabled by default, providing Python developers with a clear indication of where their code may break in a future major version of Python. However, there are increasingly many users of Python-based applications who are not directly involved in the development of those applications.
You can re-enable display of DeprecationWarning messages by running Python with unterschiede optionen und futures -Wdefault short form: Python code can also re-enable them by calling warnings. The unittest module also automatically unterschiede optionen und futures deprecation warnings when running tests.
Much as Python 2. Over the years, a number of authors have written alternative implementations that remember the order that the keys were originally inserted. Based on the experiences from those implementations, 2.
The OrderedDict API provides the same interface as regular dictionaries but iterates over keys and values in a guaranteed order depending on when a key was first inserted:. The popitem method has an optional last argument that defaults to True. Comparing two ordered dictionaries checks both the keys and values, and requires that the insertion order was the same:.
Comparing an OrderedDict with a regular dictionary ignores the insertion order and just compares the keys and values. How does the OrderedDict work?
To make program output more readable, it unterschiede optionen und futures be useful to add separators to large numbers, rendering them as 18,,, instead of Therefore, a unterschiede optionen und futures comma-grouping mechanism has been added to the mini-language used by the str. When formatting a floating-point number, simply include a comma between the width and the precision:. This mechanism is not adaptable at all; commas are always used as the separator and the grouping is always into three-digit groups.
The unterschiede optionen und futures module for parsing command-line arguments was added as a more powerful replacement for the optparse module. This means Python now supports three different modules for parsing command-line arguments: Unless you override it, -h and --help switches are automatically added, and produce neatly formatted output:. As with optparsethe command-line switches and arguments are returned as an object with unterschiede optionen und futures named by the dest parameters:.
A top-level parser can contain sub-parsers to define subcommands that have different sets of switches, as in svn commitsvn checkoutetc. The logging module is very flexible; applications can define a tree of logging subsystems, and each logger in this tree can filter out unterschiede optionen und futures messages, format them differently, and direct messages to a varying number of handlers.
All this flexibility can require a lot of configuration. You can write Python statements to create objects and set their properties, but a complex set-up requires verbose but boring code.
There are many ways to produce a dictionary from different sources: For more information see Configuration functions. Three smaller enhancements to the logging module, all implemented by Vinay Sajip, are:.
The dictionary methods keysvaluesand items are different in Python 3. They return an object called a view instead of a fully materialized list. Views can be iterated over, but the key and item views also behave like sets.
You can use the view methods in Python 2. The syntax for set literals has been backported from Python 3. Curly brackets are used to surround the contents of the resulting mutable set; set literals are distinguished from dictionaries by not containing colons and values.
Backported by Alexandre Vassalotti; bpo Dictionary and set comprehensions are another feature backported from 3. The with statement can now use multiple context managers in one statement. Context managers are processed from left to right and each one is treated as beginning a new with statement. Conversions between floating-point numbers and strings are now correctly rounded on most platforms. These conversions occur in many different places: Previously it gave a string based on rounding x to 17 decimal digits.
The rounding library responsible for this improvement works on Windows and on Unix platforms using the gcc, icc, or suncc compilers. There may be a small number of platforms where correct operation of this code cannot be guaranteed, so the code is not used on such systems.
You unterschiede optionen und futures find out which code is being used by checking sys. Conversions from long integers and regular integers to floating point now round differently, returning the floating-point number closest to the number. For example, Python 2. Implemented by Mark Dickinson; bpo Integer division is also more accurate in its rounding behaviours. Also implemented by Mark Dickinson; bpo Removed by Meador Inge and Mark Dickinson; bpo This makes using str.
Contributed by Eric Smith; bpo Complex numbers now correctly support usage with formatand default to being right-aligned. Specifying a precision or comma-separation applies to both the real and imaginary unterschiede optionen und futures of the number, but a specified field width and alignment is applied to the whole of the unterschiede optionen und futures 1.
Contributed by Eric Smith; bpo and bpo Previously the method silently applied the format string to the string representation, but that could hide mistakes in Python code. Fixed by Eric Smith; bpo Contributed by Fredrik Johansson and Victor Stinner; bpo The import statement will no longer try an absolute import if a relative import unterschiede optionen und futures.
This fixes a bug, but could unterschiede optionen und futures break certain import statements that were only working by accident. Fixed by Meador Inge; bpo Implemented by Victor Stinner; bpo Fixed by Georg Brandl; bpo Fixed by Benjamin Peterson; bpo Two new encodings are now supported: The file object will now set the filename attribute on the IOError exception when trying to open a directory on POSIX platforms noted by Jan Kaliszewski; bpoand now explicitly checks for and forbids writing to read-only file objects instead of trusting the C library to catch and report the error fixed by Stefan Krah; bpo The Python tokenizer now translates line unterschiede optionen und futures itself, so the compile built-in function now accepts code using any line-ending convention.
Additionally, it no longer requires that the code end in a newline. Extra parentheses in function definitions are illegal unterschiede optionen und futures Python 3.
In Python3-warning mode, Python 2. Unterschiede optionen und futures by James Lingard; bpo New-style classes were always weak-referenceable.
Fixed by Antoine Pitrou; bpo It should be set to a string containing warning settings, equivalent to those used with the -W switch, separated by commas. Contributed by Brian Curtin; bpo For example, the following setting will print warnings every time they occur, but turn unterschiede optionen und futures from the Cookie module into an error. The exact syntax for setting an environment variable varies across operating systems and shells.
Contributed by Benjamin Peterson. The garbage collector now performs better for one common usage pattern: This would previously take quadratic time for garbage collection, but now the number of full garbage collections is reduced as the number of objects on the heap grows.
This helps reduce the cost of each garbage collection by decreasing the number of objects to be considered and traversed by the collector. Contributed by Antoine Pitrou; bpo Apart from the performance improvements this change should be invisible to end users, with one exception: Contributed by Mark Dickinson; bpo Another set of changes made long objects a few bytes smaller: The division algorithm for long integers has been made faster by tightening the inner loop, doing shifts instead of multiplications, and fixing an unnecessary extra iteration.
VSTS is the cloud offering that provides a scalable, reliable, and globally unterschiede optionen und futures hosted service. It is backed by a Use this topic to determine which offering—cloud or on-premises—meets your organizational needs by considering these important areas:. For each area, we'll discuss unterschiede optionen und futures the current state of the world and the expected impacts from short and medium-term plans. Check back here for updates, because this information may change frequently.
TFS has three options for scoping and scaling data—deployments, team project collections, and team projects. In the simplest case, deployments are just servers. Deployments can also be more complicated, however, including everything from a two-server deployment where SQL is split out on a separate machine to high availability farms comprising lots of servers.
Team project collections serve as containers for security and administration in addition to serving as physical database boundaries.
They are also used to group related team projects. Finally, team projects are used to encapsulate the assets of individual software projects, including source code, work items, and so on. Learn more about these concepts at Manage team project collections. VSTS is slightly different. It currently only has two options for scoping and scaling data—accounts and team projects.
Accounts can contain multiple team projects, like TFS team project collections. We are planning a third option for scoping and scaling data in VSTS—a new entity unterschiede optionen und futures an Organization. Rather than adding support for multiple team project collections within an account, multiple accounts could unterschiede optionen und futures grouped within an organization.
Additionally, we will merge accounts and unterschiede optionen und futures single team project collections into a single entity. To be ready to use the organization entity, we recommend that you create accounts in VSTS whenever you would have created collections in TFS. In the short term, having your work split across multiple accounts can cause some problems, but we plan to address these when the organization entity is unterschiede optionen und futures.
If you unterschiede optionen und futures users who need access to multiple accounts, Visual Studio subscriptions can be an attractive option, since subscribers can be added to any number of VSTS accounts at no unterschiede optionen und futures. We are also considering other ways we might make access to unterschiede optionen und futures accounts grouped into an organization available. You currently have to administer accounts one at a time, which can be cumbersome when you have unterschiede optionen und futures accounts.
We're working to support organization-wide unterschiede optionen und futures. With TFS, you typically connect to an intranet server for example, https: Usually this process is transparent, and you'll never see any kind of sign-in experience. With VSTS, you connect over the public internet for example, https: You can also set up Azure AD to require features like multi-factor-authentication, IP address restrictions, and so on.
This provides a better experience in many scenarios and more options for enhanced security. The AD group memberships are kept in sync. Also, unlimited Visual Studio subscribers can have access to all Basic features at no additional charge.
You only need unterschiede optionen und futures pay for other users who need access. In TFS, all use is on the honor system.
To set access levels for users based on their licenses, use specify their access levels administration page. For example, assign unlicensed users Stakeholder access unterschiede optionen und futures. Visual Studio subscribers can have either Basic or Advanced access, based on their subscriptions. Note that TFS does not attempt to verify these licenses or enforce compliance.
You can assign Basic access for free to five users without Visual Studio subscriptions. Unterschiede optionen und futures give Basic access to more users, you'll need to set up billing for your account and pay for more users.
Otherwise, all other users get Stakeholder access. If you use Azure AD groups to provide access to groups of users, VSTS will assign appropriate access levels to them automatically when they sign in for the first time. For VSTS accounts configured to use Microsoft Accounts for sign-in, you will have to assign access levels to each user explicitly. Many organizations want to know more about data protection when they consider moving to unterschiede optionen und futures cloud.
Microsoft is committed to ensuring that VSTS projects stay safe and secure. We have technical features and business processes in place to deliver on that commitment. You can also take steps to secure your data.
Learn more in our Data Protection Overview whitepaper. You customize the work tracking experience in two different unterschiede optionen und futures depending on the supported process model:.
While the On-premises XML process model option is unterschiede optionen und futures powerful, it also can cause a number of problems. Chief among these is that processes for existing team projects do not update automatically when TFS is upgraded.
For example, TFS introduced several new features which depended on new work item types and other process template changes. When you upgrade from TFS to TFSeach team project collection gets new versions of each of the "in the box" process templates which include these changes. However, these changes are not automatically incorporated in existing team projects.
Instead, after you finish upgrading you have to include them in each team project by using the Configure Features wizard or a more manual unterschiede optionen und futures.
To avoid these issues in VSTS, custom process templates and witadmin. This has enabled us to automatically update all team projects with each VSTS upgrade. Meanwhile, the product team has been working hard to make customizing processes possible in ways that we can support easily and continuously. These first of these changes was recently introduced, and more changes are on the way. If you want to customize your processes programmatically, you can also make customizations through REST endpoints.
When you customize team projects unterschiede optionen und futures this way, those projects will continue to update automatically when we release new versions of their base processes with VSTS updgrades. To learn more, see Customize your work tracking experience. Over time we will support more and more types of process customizations with this new approach.
If you need process customization features which are not yet available and cannot wait for them, a second option for process customization in VSTS is available, referred to as Hosted XML process model, and in private preview and by request only.
With this option, you import customized process templates. This option is quite similar to using custom process templates in TFS, except that:. Restrictions exist in the customizations that can be imported into VSTS. Process templates are associated with all team projects created from them, and changes made to the process are reflected in each team project.
Team projects in accounts which participate in this process customization private preview will not update automatically with VSTS upgrades. Our new feedback system is built on GitHub Issues. For more information on this change, please read our blog post. Simplified server management Immediate access to the latest and greatest features Improved connectivity with remote sites A transition from capital expenditures servers and the like to operational expenditures subscriptions.
Use this topic to determine which offering—cloud or on-premises—meets your organizational needs by considering these unterschiede optionen und futures areas: Scope and scale data TFS has three options for scoping and scaling data—deployments, team project collections, and team projects. Authentication With TFS, you typically connect to an intranet server for example, https: Security and data protection Many organizations want to know more about data protection when they consider moving to the cloud.
Process customization You customize the work tracking experience in two different ways depending on the supported process model: This option is quite similar to using custom process templates in TFS, except that: These are very easy to set up and use.
In addition, with VSTS you have access to the following services: Analytics service and Analytics widgets. The Analytics service is optimized for fast read-access and server-based aggregations. PowerBI integration which supports getting Analytics data into Power Bi reports, providing a nice combination of simplicity and power.
OData support which allows you to directly query the Analytics Service from a supported browser and then use the returned JSON data as you desire. Enterprise organizations can generate queries that span multiple team projects or their entire VSTS account.
We plan to make these services available in TFS in a future release. The following reports and dashboards are only available in TFS: A PowerBI connector which provides a nice combination of simplicity and power. We plan to make it available in TFS in a future release. Analytics which is the reporting platform for Visual Studio Team Services VSTSwhich answer quantitative questions about the past or present state of your projects.
This service unterschiede optionen und futures a concise data model over unterschiede optionen und futures VSTS suite. Built for reporting, the Analytics Service is optimized for fast read-access and server-based aggregations. Give product feedback Sign in to give documentation feedback Give documentation feedback Our new feedback system is built on GitHub Issues.